Workshop on “Food Security: Infectious Diseases in Farm Animals”- Invited Lectures, Day 2

St. Catherine’s College, Manor Road, Oxford,  UK,  4-7th April 2016 

Attended by M Djuric, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, on 5th April 2016 (Day 2)

This workshop meeting was jointly organised by the Pirbright Institute, Woking, UK and Cairo University, Egypt and was sponsored by the British Council Research Links Programme.

The aims of the workshop were to build long-term and sustainable links between scientists in the UK and Egypt working in the field of infectious diseases of poultry and livestock.

The second day of the workshop  consisted of two sessions and included  four invited expert and engaging presentations by Professor Mohamed Shakal, Professor Fiona Tomly,  Professor Javier Guitian and Dr Roberto La Regione.

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Venue: St. Catherine's College, Manor Road, Oxford

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Workshop on “Food Security: Infectious Diseases in Farm Animals” brings together animal and veterinary scientists from Egypt and the UK

St. Catherine’s College, Manor Road, Oxford, UK,  4-7th April 2016 

Attended by M Djuric, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, on 5th April 2016 (Day 2)

This workshop meeting was jointly organised by the Pirbright Institute, Woking, UK and Cairo University, Egypt and was sponsored by the British Council Research Links Programme.

There were 50-60 delegates in attendance at the meeting, with approximately one-half of delegates coming from various faculties and Research Institutes of Cairo University. The other half of participants came from the UK, including the Pirbright Institute, Woking, Royal Veterinary College (RVC), University of London, Surrey University and Roslin Institute, Edinburgh.

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Venue: St. Catherine's College, Manor Road, Oxford

In total, 21 oral presentations, excluding invited speakers, and 17 posters were included in the meeting programme.               

A representative of the British Council, Shaun Holmes, was scheduled to provide information on Newton Fund News and Future Funding Opportunities on day three of the meeting. I attended on behalf of CABI on day two of the event.

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Five more bird species that can spread Lyme disease identified in USA

By Miroslav Djuric, DVM, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease of animals and humans in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere1. Risk of infection in humans is primarily associated with occupation (e.g. forestry work) or outdoor recreational activities.

BIRDS-LYME

Recent surveys show that the overall prevalence of Lyme disease may be stabilizing, but its geographical distribution is increasing. There are foci of Lyme borreliosis in forested areas of Asia, north-western, central and eastern Europe, and the USA. According to the CDC, Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector borne disease in the United States. It is most commonly diagnosed in the northeast and upper Midwest, especially Wisconsin and Minnesota. However, Lyme disease is spreading geographically, especially into Virginia and the southeastern United States. The CDC estimates that about 300,000 Americans are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year, afflicting sufferers with flu-like symptoms. If not treated with antibiotics, the infection can cause inflammation of the joints and it can affect the heart and nervous system.

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Animal Genetic Research Increasingly Focuses on Medical and Pharmaceutical Markets rather than on Food Production

By Miroslav Djuric, DVM, Editor of Animal Breeding Abstracts

According to a recent report by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), patenting activity in the field of animal genetics is focusing on medical and pharmaceutical markets, rather than animal products for human nutrition.

The Patent Landscape Report on Animal Genetic Resources was presented at the 8th session of the Intergovernmental Technical Group on Animal Genetic Resources at FAO in Rome on 27 November 2014. This report is the first ever large-scale quantitative analysis, grouping data on patenting activity involving livestock animals, and is the outcome of WIPO’s collaboration with the Animal Genetic Resources Branch of FAO. Hen2014

More than 14 million patent documents on 17 animal species and subspecies, central to global agriculture and food security were analysed, spanning the period between 1976 and 2013.

A quantitative indicator of trends in patent activity for animal genetic resources has been developed - it can be updated and refined over time to respond to policy needs. The indicator shows that patenting in the area of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture peaked in 2001 and has been declining since then. It is speculated that this decline may be linked to more-restrictive patent laws and lagging consumer demand for genetically modified animals.

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Global Meat Production Continues to Rise – Pork and Poultry Meat Are the Most Popular

Pork is still the most popular meat globally, followed closely by poultry meat. Global production of pork in 2011 was 109 million tons, accounting for 37% of the total meat, while poultry meat production reached 101 million tons, according to a recent report from the Worldwatch Institute

These data represent a 0.8% annual decrease in pork production and a 3% annual increase in poultry meat production. If this trend continues poultry meat is likely to become the most-produced meat in the next few years.

Chickens

Production of both beef and sheep meat stagnated at 67 million and 13 million tons, respectively.

Total meat production rose to 297 million tons in 2011 (0.8% annual increase) and is projected to reach 302 million tons by the end of 2012 (1.6% annual increase).

Concentrated animal feeding operations, also known as factory farms, account for 72% of poultry production, 55% of pork production and 43% of egg production worldwide.

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Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Targeted for Eradication

By Miroslav Djuric, DVM

Following the successful eradication of Rinderpest (Cattle plague, see blog), veterinarians, farmers and donors across the World are turning their focus to combat Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) on a global scale. The FAO and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) have developed a detailed strategy for FMD control under the umbrella of their Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs). However, it is clear that only a massive commitment of national and international resources can make FMD eradication possible, as surveillance and monitoring over a long period is required.

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FMD is a highly infectious disease caused by a picornavirus, which affects cloven-hoofed animals, in particular cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and deer. Other animals including camelids and elephants can also be affected. The disease is notifiable, which means that the local veterinary services must be notified immediately if FMD is suspected.Although FMD does not pose a direct threat to human health, and is rarely fatal in animals, it can cause reduced milk yield, weight loss and lower fertility.

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Veterinarians Target Next Virus for Eradication

 
Following the recent eradication of rinderpest virus in cattle (see blog), the veterinary profession is contemplating which viral disease of animals should be targeted for eradication next. This is not an easy task considering the vast number of viral diseases that plague livestock animals and have devastating effects on animal health, public health and people’s livelihoods.

Sheep

According to the authors of a scientific editorial (1) and a review article (2) that appeared in the recent issue of Veterinary Record published on 1st July 2011, the next livestock virus targeted for eradication could be peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus.

Dr Michael Baron and colleagues from the Institute for Animal Health (IAH), Pirbright, UK said in their review that the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) should focus on PPR virus as the next livestock virus for eradication.

PPR virus affects sheep and goats and is closely related to the recently eradicated rinderpest virus. Cattle can also be infected with PPR virus but they do not show obvious signs of disease. PPR is circulating on the edges of the European Union, on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Outbreaks were reported in Morocco and Tunisia in 2008 and there is evidence for its presence in Algerian sheep this year. It has also been present in Turkey for many years. PPR is the fastest growing and one of the most economically important diseases of sheep and goats, the animals that play a very important role in sustainable agriculture and development in Africa and Asia. Mortality in infected animals ranges from 10 to 90%, depending on age, breed and secondary infectious agents. Animals that survive become anorexic, their milk yield is reduced, and they are susceptible to secondary infections and abortions.

Baron and colleagues are already working on the development of a “smart” vaccine for PPR, one that leaves an antibody signature different from that created by infection with the virulent virus, so that vaccinated animals can be distinguished from animals that have been infected by virulent virus, and vice versa. They are also working on a "dip stick" test for PPR virus, similar to the one that IAH developed for the rinderpest eradication programme.

There are good reasons to believe that the eradication of PPR is an achievable goal, because the PPR virus shares a number of properties with rinderpest virus that contributed to the successful campaign to eradicate the latter, i.e. there is a safe and reliable vaccine; simple and effective diagnostic tests are available; the virus has a short infectious period, with no carrier/persistent state; transmission occurs only by close contact; and there is an economic incentive to eradicate it.

However, before a massive commitment of national and international resources for a successful eradication campaign, which would require surveillance and monitoring over a long period, a thorough evaluation of the likelihood of success of an eradication campaign, as well as its costs and benefits, is of utmost importance. Potential for eradication of other diseases such as foot and mouth disease (FMD) or rabies virus, for example, also needs to be evaluated.

CAB Direct database offers an excellent source of scientific information and is a very useful tool for evaluating potential for eradication of any viral disease of animals. It comprehensively covers world’s scientific literature from over 150 countries and in over 50 languages on all the viral diseases of animals, including PPR, FMD and rabies. CAB Direct database contains over 17000 records on rabies, over 13000 records on foot-and mouth disease and over 800 records on peste des petits ruminants.

References:

1. Anderson J., Baron MD., Cameron A., Kock R., Jones B., Pfeiffer D., Mariner J., McKeever D., Oura, CAL., Roeder P., Rossiter P. and Taylor W. (2011): Rinderpest eradicated – what next? Veterinary Record, 169: 10-11, doi: 10.1136/vr.d4011.

2. Baron MD., Parida S. and Oura CAL. (2011). Peste des petits ruminants: a suitable case for eradication? Veterinary Record, 169: 16-21 doi: 10.1136/vr.d3947.